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Multi-centre, Adaptive, Randomized Trial of the Safety and Efficacy of Treatments of COVID-19 in Hospitalized Adults

Trial Profile

Multi-centre, Adaptive, Randomized Trial of the Safety and Efficacy of Treatments of COVID-19 in Hospitalized Adults

Status: Active, no longer recruiting
Phase of Trial: Phase III

Latest Information Update: 20 May 2021

At a glance

  • Drugs Cilgavimab/tixagevimab (Primary) ; Hydroxychloroquine (Primary) ; Interferon beta-1a (Primary) ; Interferon beta-1a (Primary) ; Lopinavir/ritonavir (Primary) ; Lopinavir/ritonavir (Primary) ; Remdesivir (Primary)
  • Indications COVID-19 respiratory infection
  • Focus Therapeutic Use
  • Acronyms DisCoVeRy
  • Most Recent Events

    • 22 Apr 2021 Protocol amended to add AZD-7442 double blinded arm to trial planned number of patient changed.
    • 22 Apr 2021 Planned number of patients changed from 3100 to 2416.
    • 11 Feb 2021 This trial has been suspended in Austria, according to European Clinical Trials Database record.

Trial Overview

Purpose

DisCoVeRy is a randomized controlled trial among adults (≥18-year-old) hospitalized for COVID-19. This study is an adaptive, randomized, open or blinded, depending on the drug to be evaluated, clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of possible therapeutic agents in hospitalized adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19.

Primary Endpoints

Percentage of subjects reporting each severity rating on a 7-point ordinal scale

description: Not hospitalized, no limitations on activities
Not hospitalized, limitation on activities;
Hospitalized, not requiring supplemental oxygen;
Hospitalized, requiring supplemental oxygen;
Hospitalized, on non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices;
Hospitalized, on invasive mechanical ventilation or ECMO;
Death.
time_frame: Day 15

Other Endpoints

Status on an ordinal scale

description: Percentage of subjects reporting each severity rating on a 7-point on an ordinal scale time_frame: Days 29, 90, 180 and 365

National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS-2 score)

description: Change from baseline in NEWS-2. time_frame: Days 3, 8, 15, and 29

Number of oxygenation free days in the first 28 days

time_frame: 29 days

Incidence of new oxygen use, non-invasive ventilation or high flow oxygen devices during the trial.

time_frame: 29 days

Ventilator free days in the first 28 days

time_frame: 29 days

Incidence of new mechanical ventilation use during the trial.

time_frame: 29 days

Need for mechanical ventilation or death by Day 15

description: Proportion of patients with mechanical ventilation or death at day 15 time_frame: Day 15

Hospitalization

description: Time to hospital discharge (days). time_frame: 29 days

Mortality

description: Rate of mortality time_frame: In hospital, Days 28, 90, 180, 365, 456

Occurrence of new hospitalization

time_frame: Days 90, 180 and 365

Occurrence of confirmed re-infection with SARS-CoV-2

time_frame: Days 90, 180 and 365

Cumulative incidence of serious adverse events (SAEs)

time_frame: 29 days

Cumulative incidence of Grade 1- 2 hypersensitivity- related and infusion related AEs until D29 visit

time_frame: 29 days

Cumulative incidence of Grade 3 and 4 adverse events (AEs)

time_frame: 29 days

Number of participants with a discontinuation or temporary suspension of study drugs (for any reason)

time_frame: 29 days

Cumulative incidence of AEs of Special Interest

time_frame: 29 days

Percent of subjects with SARS-CoV-2 detectable in nasopharyngeal sample

time_frame: Days 3, 5, 8, 11, 15, 29

Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 virus in nasopharyngeal sample

time_frame: Days 3, 5, 8, 11, 15, 29

Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 virus in blood

time_frame: Days 3, 8 [1]

Diseases Treated

Indication Qualifiers Patient Segments
COVID-19 respiratory infection treatment -

Subjects

  • Subject Type patients
  • Number

    Planned: 2416

  • Sex male & female
  • Age Group ≥ 18 years; adult; elderly

Patient Inclusion Criteria

1. Adult ≥18 years of age at the time of enrolment 2. Hospitalized patients with any of the following criteria: 1. the presence of pulmonary rales/crackles on clinical exam OR 2. SpO2 ≤ 94% on room air OR 3. requirement of supplementary oxygen including high flow oxygen devices or non-invasive ventilation 3. A time between onset of symptoms and randomization of less than 9 days 4. A positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR performed on a NP swab within the 5 days preceding randomization 5. The result of a rapid antigen test performed on a NP swab within the 6 hours preceding randomization 6. Contraceptive use by men or women. 1. Male participants: Contraception for male participants is not required; however, to avoid the transfer of any fluids, all male participants must use a condom from Day 1 and agree to continue for 90 days following administration of IMP. 2. Female participants: Women of child-bearing potential must agree to use contraception for 365 days following administration of IMP

Patient Exclusion Criteria

1. Refusal to participate expressed by patient or legally authorized representative 2. Need for invasive mechanical ventilation and/or ECMO at the time of enrolment 3. Spontaneous blood ALT/AST levels > 5 times the upper limit of normal 4. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 15 mL/min or requiring maintenance dialysis 5. Pregnancy or breast-feeding 6. Anticipated transfer to another hospital, which is not a study site within 72 hours following randomization 7. Known history of allergy or reaction to any component of the study drug formulation. 8. Previous hypersensitivity, infusion-related reaction, or severe adverse reaction following administration of monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies. 9. Any prior receipt of investigational or licensed vaccine or other mAb/biologic indicated for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 or expected receipt in the 30 days following hospital discharge, according to current recommendation in each country. 10. Any medical condition which, in the judgment of the investigator, could interfere with the interpretation of the trial results or that preludes to protocol adherence.

Trial Details

Identifiers

Identifier Owner
NCT04315948 ClinicalTrials.gov: US National Institutes of Health
EudraCT2020-000936-23 European Clinical Trials Database
C20-15 -

Organisations

  • Affiliations AbbVie; Cipla; Faron Pharmaceuticals; Gilead Sciences; Merck & Co; Mylan

Trial Dates

  • Initiation Dates

    Planned : 01 Mar 2020

    Actual : 22 Mar 2020

  • Primary Completion Dates

    Planned : 01 Mar 2023

  • End Dates

    Planned : 01 Mar 2023

Other Details

  • Design double-blind; multicentre; open; parallel; prospective; randomised
  • Phase of Trial Phase III
  • Location Austria; Belgium; France; Luxembourg; Portugal
  • Focus Therapeutic Use

Interventions

Drugs Route Formulation
Cilgavimab/tixagevimabPrimary Drug Intravenous Infusion
HydroxychloroquinePrimary Drug Oral Tablet
Interferon beta-1aPrimary Drug Intravenous
-
Interferon beta-1aPrimary Drug Subcutaneous Injection
Lopinavir/ritonavirPrimary Drug Nasogastric Solution, Suspension
Lopinavir/ritonavirPrimary Drug Oral Tablet
RemdesivirPrimary Drug Intravenous Infusion

Remdesivir

Remdesivir will be administered as a 200 mg intravenous loading dose on Day 1, followed by a 100 mg once-daily intravenous maintenance dose for the duration of the hospitalization up to a 10 days total course. n=475 Drug: Remdesivir (The lyophilized formulation of Remdesivir is a preservative-free, white to off-white or yellow, lyophilized solid containing 100 mg of Remdesivir to be reconstituted with 19 mL of sterile water for injection and diluted into IV infusion fluids prior to IV infusion. Following reconstitution, each vial contains a 5 mg/mL Remdesivir concentrated solution with sufficient volume to allow withdrawal of 20 mL (100 mg of remdesivir). It is supplied as a sterile product in a single-use, 30 mL, Type 1 clear glass vial.) Other: Standard of care (Standard of care)

Lopinavir/ritonavir (stopped on June 29, 2020)

Lopinavir/ritonavir (400 lopinavir mg/100 mg ritonavir) will be administered every 12 h for 14 days in tablet form. For patients who are unable to take medications by mouth, the lopinavir/ritonavir (400 lopinavir mg/100 mg ritonavir) will be administered as a 5-ml suspension every 12 h for 14 days via a pre-existing or newly placed nasogastric tube. n=620 Drug: Lopinavir/ritonavir (The oral tablets of lopinavir/ritonavir contain 200 mg lopinavir, 50 mg ritonavir. They have a yellow colour, film-coated, ovaloid shape debossed with the "a" logo and the code KA. The oral solution for patients who cannot swallow is a light yellow to orange colored liquid containing 400 mg lopinavir and 100 mg ritonavir per 5 mL (80 mg lopinavir and 20 mg ritonavir per mL).) Other: Standard of care (Standard of care)

Lopinavir/ritonavir plus Interferon ß-1a (stopped on June 29)

Lopinavir/ritonavir (400 lopinavir mg/100 mg ritonavir) will be administered every 12 h for 14 days in tablet form. For patients who are unable to take medications by mouth, the lopinavir/ritonavir (400 lopinavir mg/100 mg ritonavir) will be administered as a 5-ml suspension every 12 h for 14 days via a pre-existing or newly placed nasogastric tube. Interferon ß1a will be administered subcutaneously at the dose of 44 µg for a total of 3 doses in 6 days (day 1, day 3, day 6). n=620 Drug: Lopinavir/ritonavir (The oral tablets of lopinavir/ritonavir contain 200 mg lopinavir, 50 mg ritonavir. They have a yellow colour, film-coated, ovaloid shape debossed with the "a" logo and the code KA. The oral solution for patients who cannot swallow is a light yellow to orange colored liquid containing 400 mg lopinavir and 100 mg ritonavir per 5 mL (80 mg lopinavir and 20 mg ritonavir per mL).) Drug: Interferon Beta-1A (IFN-ß-1a is supplied as a sterile solution containing no preservative available in a prefilled syringe. It will be provided as a single-dose prefilled graduated syringe with 44 µg per 0.5 mL. The liquid should be clear to slightly yellow. Do not use if the liquid is cloudy, discolored or contains particles. Use a different syringe.) Other: Standard of care (Standard of care)

Hydroxychloroquine (stopped on May 24, 2020)

Hydroxychloroquine will be administered orally as a loading dose of 400 mg twice daily for one day followed by 400 mg once daily for 9 days. The loading dose of hydroxychloroquine through a nasogastric tube will be increased to 600 mg twice a day for one day, followed by a maintenance dose of 400 mg once a day for 9 days n=620 Drug: Hydroxychloroquine (Hydroxychloroquine is supplied as film-coated 200 mg tablets. Hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablets are presented as white or whitish, peanut-shaped, oblong or round film-coated tablets containing 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine sulfate (equivalent to 155 mg base).) Other: Standard of care (Standard of care)

AZD7442

Participants randomized to the AZD7442 group will receive a total dose of 600 mg AZD7442 via a co-administered (300 mg AZD8895 and 300 mg AZD1061) single IV infusion on Day 1. n=620 Other: Standard of care (Standard of care) Drug: AZD7442 (AZD7442 will be supplied as separate vials of AZD8895 and AZD1061 containing 150 mg colorless to slightly yellow, clear to opalescent solutions for injection.)

Standard of care alone

Standard of care alone before March, 2021. Other: Standard of care (Standard of care)

Standard of care with placebo

Standard of care with placebo since April, 2021 n=620 Other: Standard of care (Standard of care) Other: Placebo (Since April, 2021, the placebo will be a 0.9% (w/v) NaCl solution for infusion also called saline. The placebo will be supplied as a single 10-mL, clear and colorless vial.)

Results

Publications

  1. Zhang R, Mylonakis E. In inpatients with COVID-19, none of remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, or interferon beta-1a differed from standard care for in-hospital mortality. . Ann-Intern-Med 2021;.

    PubMed | CrossRef Fulltext
  2. Pan H, Peto R, Henao-Restrepo AM, Preziosi MP, Sathiyamoorthy V, Abdool Karim Q, et al. Repurposed Antiviral Drugs for Covid-19 - Interim WHO Solidarity Trial Results. . N-Engl-J-Med 2020;.

    PubMed | CrossRef Fulltext

Authors

Author Total Publications First Author Last Author
Abdool Karim Q 1 - -
Abi Hanna P 1 - -
Ader F 1 - -
Al-Bader AM 1 - -
Alejandria MM 1 - -
Alhasawi A 1 - -
Allum E 1 - -
Alotaibi A 1 - -
Alvarez-Moreno CA 1 - -
Appadoo S 1 - -
Asiri A 1 - -
Aukrust P 1 - -
Barratt-Due A 1 - -
Bellani S 1 - -
Branca M 1 - -
Cappel-Porter HBC 1 - -
Cerrato N 1 - -
Chow TS 1 - -
Como N 1 - -
Eustace J 1 - -
Garcia PJ 1 - -
Godbole S 1 - -
Gotuzzo E 1 - -
Griskevicius L 1 - -
Hamra R 1 - -
Hassan M 1 - -
Hassany M 1 - -
Henao-Restrepo AM 1 - -
Hernandez Garcia C 1 - -
Hutton D 1 - -
Irmansyah I 1 - -
Jancoriene L 1 - -
Kieny MP 1 - -
Kirwan J 1 - -
Kumar S 1 - -
Lennon P 1 - -
Lopardo G 1 - -
Lydon P 1 - -
Magrini N 1 - -
Maguire T 1 - -
Malekzadeh R 1 - -
Manevska S 1 - -
Manuel O 1 - -
McGinty S 1 - -
Medina MT 1 - -
Mesa Rubio ML 1 - -
Miranda-Montoya MC 1 - -
Murthy S 1 - -
Mylonakis E 1 - 1
Nel J 1 - -
Nunes EP 1 - -
Pan H 1 1 -
Perola M 1 - -
Peto R 1 - -
Portoles A 1 - -
Preziosi MP 1 - -
Rasmin MR 1 - -
Raza A 1 - -
Reddy KS 1 - -
Rees H 1 - -
Reges PPS 1 - -
Rogers CA 1 - -
Roses Periago M 1 - -
Rottingen JA 1 - -
Salami K 1 - -
Salvadori MI 1 - -
Sathiyamoorthy V 1 - -
Sinani N 1 - -
Sterne JAC 1 - -
Stevanovikj M 1 - -
Swaminathan S 1 - 1
Tacconelli E 1 - -
Tikkinen KAO 1 - -
Trelle S 1 - -
Zaid H 1 - -
Zhang R 1 1 -

Trial Centres

Investigators

Investigator Centre Name Trial Centre Country
André CABIE Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique France
Armand MEKONTSO DESSAP APHP - hôpital Henri-Mondor France
Benoit PILMIS Hôpital Paris Saint-Joseph et Marie Lannelongue France
Béatrice RIU-POULENC Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse France
Clément DUBOST Hôpital d'Instruction des Armées BEGIN France
Cyrille CHABARTIER Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique France
Cécile FICKO Hôpital d'Instruction des Armées BEGIN France
Céline ROBERT Centre Hospitalier Regional Metz-Thionville France
David BOUGON Centre Hospitalier Annecy Genevois France
David LEBEAUX APHP- Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou France
Denis GAROT Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Tours France
Denis MALVY Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux France
Didier GRUSON Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux France
Elisabeth BOTELHO-NEVERS Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint Etienne France
Eric SENNEVILLE Centre Hospitalier de Tourcoing France
Fanny BOUNES - VARDON Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse France
Ferhat MEZIANI Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Strasbourg France
Flora CROCKETT Hopital DELAFONTAINE France
Florence ADER Hospices Civils de Lyon France
Florence Ader, MD
+33 (0)4 72 07 15 60 florence.ader@chu-lyon.fr
show details
Hospices Civils de Lyon France
François BENEZIT Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes France
François DANION Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Strasbourg France
François GOEHRINGER Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Nancy France
François Raffi Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes France
François-Xavier Lescure APHP - Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard France
Guillaume MARTIN BLONDEL Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse France
Guillaume THIERY Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint Etienne France
Hafid AIT TOUFELLA APHP - Hôpital Saint Antoine France
Hélène Espérou, MD
+33 1 44 23 60 70 helene.esperou@inserm.fr
show details
-
Jean DELLAMONICA Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice France
Jean Reignier Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes France
Jean-Christophe NAVELLOU Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Besançon France
Jean-Christophe RICHARD Hospices Civils de Lyon France
Jean-François Timsit APHP - Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard France
Jean-Luc DIEHL APHP- Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou France
Jean-Paul MIRA APHP - Hôpital Cochin France
Jean-Philippe LANOIX Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Amiens-Picardie France
Jean-Pierre QUENOT Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Dijon-Bourgogne France
Jerome ABOAB Hopital DELAFONTAINE France
Jerome Le Pavec Hôpital Paris Saint-Joseph et Marie Lannelongue France
Johan COURJEON Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice France
Joy MOOTIEN Groupe Hospitalier de la Région de Mulhouse Sud Alsace France
Julien MAYAUX APHP - Hôpital Universitaire Pitié Salpêtrière France
Julien Poissy Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille France
Kada KLOUCHE Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montpellier France
Karine Faure Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille France
Karine LACOMBE APHP - Hôpital Saint Antoine France
Kevin BOUILLER Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Besançon France
Lionel PIROTH Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Dijon-Bourgogne France
Louis BERNARD Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Tours France
Marc BERNIA Hôpitaux Robert Schuman Luxembourg
Nicolas TERZI Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Grenoble France
Odile LAUNAY APHP - Hôpital Cochin France
Olivier EPAULARS Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Grenoble France
Olivier HINSCHBERGER Groupe Hospitalier de la Région de Mulhouse Sud Alsace France
Rostane GACI Centre Hospitalier Regional Metz-Thionville France
Samy FIGUEIREDO AP-HP Hôpital Bicêtre France
Stéphane JAUREGUIBERRY AP-HP Hôpital Bicêtre France
Sébastien GALLIEN APHP - hôpital Henri-Mondor France
Sébastien GIBOT Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Nancy France
Thérèse STAUB Centre Hospitalier Luxembourg Luxembourg
Valérie POURCHER APHP - Hôpital Universitaire Pitié Salpêtrière France
Vanessa JEAN-MICHEL Centre Hospitalier de Tourcoing France
Vincent LEMOING Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montpellier France
Violaine TOLSMA Centre Hospitalier Annecy Genevois France
Yoann ZERBIB Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Amiens-Picardie France
Yves LE TULZO Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes France

Centres

Centre Name Location Trial Centre Country
-
-
-
AP-HP Hôpital Bicêtre Kremlin-Bicêtre France
APHP - Hôpital Bichat Claude Bernard Paris France
APHP - Hôpital Cochin Paris France
APHP - hôpital Henri-Mondor Créteil France
APHP - Hôpital Saint Antoine Paris France
APHP - Hôpital Universitaire Pitié Salpêtrière Paris France
APHP- Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou Paris France
Centre Hospitalier Annecy Genevois Épagny France
Centre Hospitalier de Tourcoing Tourcoing France
Centre Hospitalier Luxembourg Luxembourg Luxembourg
Centre Hospitalier Regional Metz-Thionville Ars-Laquenexy France
Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Nancy Nancy France
Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Besançon Besançon France
Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Lille Lille France
Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Strasbourg Strasbourg France
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Amiens-Picardie Amiens France
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux Bordeaux France
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique Fort De France France
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montpellier Montpellier France
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nantes Nantes France
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes Rennes France
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint Etienne Saint-Étienne France
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse Toulouse France
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Tours Tours France
Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Dijon-Bourgogne Dijon France
Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Grenoble La Tronche France
Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice Nice France
Groupe Hospitalier de la Région de Mulhouse Sud Alsace Mulhouse France
Hopital DELAFONTAINE Saint-Denis France
Hospices Civils de Lyon Lyon France
Hôpital d'Instruction des Armées BEGIN Saint-Mandé France
Hôpital Paris Saint-Joseph et Marie Lannelongue Paris France
Hôpitaux Robert Schuman Luxembourg Luxembourg
INSERM
-
France
Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale, France
-
-

Trial History

Event Date Event Type Comment
20 May 2021 Other trial event Last checked against ClinicalTrials.gov record. Updated 20 May 2021
13 May 2021 Other trial event Last checked against European Clinical Trials Database record. Updated 13 May 2021
22 Apr 2021 Protocol amendment Protocol amended to add AZD-7442 double blinded arm to trial planned number of patient changed. Updated 29 Apr 2021
22 Apr 2021 Other trial event Planned number of patients changed from 3100 to 2416. Updated 29 Apr 2021
11 Feb 2021 Other trial event This trial has been suspended in Austria, according to European Clinical Trials Database record. Updated 11 Feb 2021
02 Feb 2021 Interim results Results published in the Annals of Internal Medicine Updated 05 Feb 2021
01 Feb 2021 Status change - active, no longer recruiting Status changed from recruiting to active, no longer recruiting. Updated 04 Feb 2021
02 Dec 2020 Interim results Interim results (n=11330) published in the New England Journal of Medicine Updated 28 Dec 2020
19 Nov 2020 Other trial event Trial design of SOLIDARITY and DISCOVERY, presented at the 23rd Annual European Congress of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. Updated 20 Nov 2020
30 Apr 2020 Other trial event According to a Faron Pharmaceuticals media release, over 90 countries involved in this trial. Updated 04 May 2020
24 Mar 2020 Other trial event New source identified and integrated,European Clinical Trials Database;EudraCT2020-000936-23. Updated 24 Mar 2020
23 Mar 2020 Status change - recruiting Status changed from not yet recruiting to recruiting. Updated 27 Mar 2020
23 Mar 2020 New trial record New trial record Updated 23 Mar 2020

References

  1. ClinicalTrials.gov: US National Institutes of Health. Trial-Reg 2021;.

    Available from: URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov
  2. European Clinical Trials Database. Trial-Reg 2021;.

    Available from: URL: https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu
  3. Zhang R, Mylonakis E. In inpatients with COVID-19, none of remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, or interferon beta-1a differed from standard care for in-hospital mortality. . Ann-Intern-Med 2021;.

    PubMed | CrossRef Fulltext
  4. Faron Pharmaceuticals. Traumakine to be a part of WHO's Solidarity trial investigating potential COVID-19 treatments. Media-Rel 2020;.

    Media Release
  5. Pan H, Peto R, Henao-Restrepo AM, Preziosi MP, Sathiyamoorthy V, Abdool Karim Q, et al. Repurposed Antiviral Drugs for Covid-19 - Interim WHO Solidarity Trial Results. . N-Engl-J-Med 2020;.

    PubMed | CrossRef Fulltext
  6. Liang S, Qiu T, Wang Y, Han R, Dabbous O, Toumi M. COVID-19- Why Solidarity and Discovery Trials MAY Fail to Bring Informative and Timely Results? EISPOR-2020 2020; abstr. PDG75.

    Available from: URL: https://www.ispor.org/heor-resources/presentations-database/presentation/euro2020-3282/108478
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